20 June, 2009

Definition.


ما هي أنفلونزا الخنازير؟

أنفلونزا الخنازير مرض تنفسي يصيب الخنازير . وعندما تصاب مجموعة من الخنازير بالسلالة "أ" من هذا المرض تنشر بينها أعراض مرض شديد ،لكن الإصابات نادرا ما تكون مميتة . عادة ما تنتشر العدوى في الخريف و الشتاء ، لكنها تستطيع الظهور في اى وقت من السنة .

هناك عدة أنواع من أنفلونزا الخنازير ، وكما الشأن بالنسبة لأنفلونزا البشر ، تتغير خريطتها الجينية باستمرار.


هل يمكن أن يصاب البشر بأنفلونزا الخنازير ؟

أنفلونزا الخنازير لا تصيب البشر عادة ، لكن تحدث حالات متفرقة ، خاصة عند أشخاص يتعاملون مع الخنازير عن قرب .

كما أن هناك حالات موثقة انتقلت فيها العدوى من إنسان لأخر . ويعتقد إنها تنتقل مثل الأنفلونزا العادية ، عن طريق السعال والعطس .


هل يتعلق الأمر اليوم بنوع جديد من أنفلونزا الخنازير؟

نؤكد منظمة الصحة العالمية أن بعض الحالات على الأقل هي إصابات بنسخة لم تعرف من قبل من سلالةN1H1 لفيروس أنفلونزا الخنازير "أ" .

والسلالة N1H1 هي التي تتسبب عادة في عدوة الأنفلونزا موسميا عند الإنسان ، لكن هذه النسخة الجديدة مختلفة ، فهي تحوى جينات مشتركة بين فيروسات أنفلونزا الإنسان والطيور والخنازير.

تستطيع فيروسات الأنفلونزا المختلفة تبادل الجينات فيما بينها ، ويبدو من المحتمل أن هذه النسخة الجديدة من الفيروس نتجت عن إصابة كائن واحد بعدة أنواع من الفيروس ، تصيب عادة كائنات مختلفة .


ما مدى خطورة أنفلونزا الخنازير ؟

تسبب أنفلونزا الخنازير أعراضا مشابهة للأنفلونزا الموسمية العادية التي تصيب الإنسان ، ومنها الحمى والسعال وألام الحنجرة والمفاصل وموجات البرد والإعياء .
ومعظم الأعراض الناتجة عن أنفلونزا الخنازير حول العالم تبدو خفيفة ، إلا فى المكسيك حيث أدت إلى وفاة العشرات .




هل يستدعى انتشارها القلق؟

كلما ظهر فيروس يمكنه الانتشار من شخص لأخر تتم مراقبته عن كثب مخافة تحوله إلى وباء .

وقد حذرت منظمة الصحة العالمية من أن الحالات التي ظهرت في المكسيك والولايات المتحدة قد تكون الشرارة التي تولد وباء على الصعيد العالمي ، مؤكدة أن الوضع خطير للغاية .

لكنها أيضا تلح على أن الوقت مبكرا جدا لتقييم الوضع بشكل كامل فيما يقول مسئولون أن العالم اقرب اليوم إلى وباء أنفلونزا من 1968.

ولا تعرف العواقب التي قد تترتب عن اندلاع وباء ، لكن الخبراء يقولون انه قد يؤدى بالملايين خول العالم .
وللتذكير ، فان وباء الأنفلونزا الذي أصاب اسبانيا 1918/، وهو سلالة N1H1 هو الأخر ، أدى فعلا إلى وفاة الملايين.

وتعتبر خفة الأعراض التي ظهرت في الولايات المتحدة مشجعة حيث قد تعنى انق ساوتها في المكسيك ربما سببتها عوامل جغرافية محددة أو فيروس ثان أصاب السكان المحليين في نفس الوقت .

لكن السبب قد يكون أيضا طلب المصابين في المكسيك العلاج في وقت متأخر جدا مقارنة مع بقية العالم ، أو كون فيروس المكسيك مختلفا عن غيره شيئا ما.


هل يمكن احتواء هذا الفيروس ؟

يبدو أن الفيروس بدا في الانتشار حول العالم ، ويرى معظم الخبراء أن احتواءه سيكون من الصعوبة بمكان في زمن ينتقل فيه ألاف الأشخاص يوميا حول العالم .


ماذا عن الأدوية و اللقاحات ؟

تقول السلطات الأمريكية أن دواءين يستخدما في علاج الأنفلونزا ، وهما تامي فلو و رريلينزا ، اظهرا نجاعتهما في الحالات التي سجلت لحد ألان .

وتقلل تلك العقاقير أيضا احتمال انتقال العدوى من شخص لأخر .
Swine Flu Questions and Answers

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