23 March, 2015

What is Montelukast used for?

How does it work? .

Singulair 10mg lozenges contain the active ingredient montelukast, which is a type of practice of medicine known as a leukotriene sensory receptor antagonist. It works by obturating the activity of leukotrienes, which are chemicals released by the body as part of sensitised and instigative reactions. 


Leukotrienes are released from the lungs in citizenries with bronchial asthma, having inflammation and increased mucose production in the airlines . They too induce the musculuses lining the airways to contract, which narrows the air ducts. All of this makes it hard for melodic phrase to get in and out of the lungs.

Montelukast blocks leukotriene sensory receptors in the lungs and, as a result, blocks the actions of the leukotrienes. This keeps the spare mucose product, inflammation and narrowing of the skyways and so keeps asthma attacks. It is also useful for keeping asthma actuated by exercise.

Montelukast is used for peoples whose asthma is not amply controlled by applying regular inhaled corticoids and short-acting beta agonist relievers such as salbutamol. It is used in addition to these medicines.

Montelukast should be taken on a regular basis to prevent asthma attacks. You should continue to take it even when your symptoms are under control.

Leukotrienes are besides secreted from the nasal passageways when peoples with seasonal allergies , such as hayfever, are exposed to contents that trip their allergic reaction (allergens, eg pollen). The leukotrienes impart to the symptoms of hayfever, such as a fluid or closed up nose , sneezing and itchy olfactory organ. This medication blocks the effect of leukotrienes in the olfactory organ and so can also exempt hayfever symptoms in multitudes with asthma attack who lose from hayfever.
What is it used for? .

Asthma.
Bar of asthma attack chiefly activated by exercise.
The medicine can also supply moderation from hayfever symptoms in multitudes with bronchial asthma who also suffer from hayfever (seasonal allergic rhinitis).

Singulair 10mg pills are suitable for adults senesced 15 classes and over. The tablet should be taken erst day by day, in the evening.
Warning! .

This medicine should never be used to care for asthma attacks - you should keep your normal backup inhalator, eg salbutamol or terbutaline, ready for this. Consult your doctor if you need to habituate your fill in more oftentimes than normal, or if it gets less effectual at treating asthma attacks. 
you should not stop taking any of your other medications , in particular any corticosteroid inhalators or pills . This practice of medicine is not a substitute for corticosteroids. Nonetheless , you may find out that you need to habituate your stand in inhalator less oft .
In rare cases, peoples taking asthma medications may feel a rare status known as Churg-Strauss syndrome. Consult your doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms while taking this medicament ; flu-like symptoms, increasing shortness of breath , pins and needles, numbness of the limbs or rash .

Not to be used in.

Rare transmissible problems of galactose intolerance, the Sami lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption (Singulair 10mg lozenges contain lactose ).
Singulair 10mg pills are not commended for children under 15 years of age. Other shapes of Singulair are available for treating children - view Singulair pediatric connected at the end of this factsheet.

This music should not be used if you are supersensitized to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or druggist if you have previously experienced such an allergic reaction.

If you experience you have experienced an allergic reaction, terminate using this medicament and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding.

Certain musics should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Even so , other medications may be safely used in gestation or wetting nurse rendering the benefits to the female parent outweigh the risks to the unborn baby. Constantly inform your doctor if you are fraught or contriving a pregnancy , before using any medicine.

The safety of this music for usage during maternity has not been established . It is not commended for enjoyment in pregnancy unless reckoned essential by your doctor. Look for medical advice from your doctor.
It is not known if this medicament goes across into white meat milk. It is not commended for use during wetting nurse unless seen essential by your doctor. Look for medical advice from your doctor.

By jackbetoon

15 March, 2015

الصداع.. مراجعة و تفاهم


الصداع مشكلة تؤرق الكثيرين، خاصة من يعملون أوقاتاً طويلة
ويعانون من التوتر، أو من يشكون من أعراض صحية أخرى. ويورد موقع "فيم" الألماني الإلكتروني مجموعة من النصائح للحيلولة دون الإصابة بالصداع وتنطبق هذه النصائح على الحالات البسيطة من الصداع والتي لا يكون صاحبها مصابا بأمراض أو مشاكل مثل ارتفاع ضغط الدم. أما الصداع الشديد أو المتكرر فيستلزم مراجعة الطبيب لتشخيص أسبابه الحقيقية وعلاجها.
الجلوس لفترات طويلة أمام الحاسوب يؤدي إلى آلام في الرقبة تسبب بدورها الصداع، وفي هذه الحالة يُنصح باستخدام مجفف الشعر الذي يطلق هواءً 
ساخناً وتصويبه على العنق والأكتاف و مؤخرة الرأس.
انخفاض نسبة السكر في الدم يؤدي إلى الصداع، لذلك يجب تناول الطعام بشكل دوري دون انتظار أعراض الجوع. ويُنصح بأكل أغذية تحتوي على المغنيسيوم، مثل الأسماك والمكسرات لأنها تهدئ العضلات والأعصاب. كما يجب في المقابل تجنب أطعمة تحتوي على السكر والدهنيات والخمر والشوكولاته والقمح وأي غذاء يحتوي على مادة الغلوتامات. وإذا ما أصيب المرء بالصداع، فيمكن لقدح من القهوة أن يخفض أعراضه، على ألا يكون الجسم يحتوي بالفعل على مادة الكافيين.
إذا كان الصداع يصيب المرء خلال أيام الإجازات أو في صباح أول يوم عمل في
 الأسبوع، ينبغي التدقيق في انتظام وعدد ساعات النوم، فقلة النوم أو زيادتها تتسبب في الإصابة بالصداع. لذلك، ينصح الموقع الألماني حتى في العطلات بالاستيقاظ مبكراً وعدم الإطالة في النوم.
الأشخاص الذين لا يعرفون أن لديهم طول أو قصر نظر ويعانون في ذات الوقت من الصداع، خاصة بعد القيام بأعمال تتطلب القراءة أو الكتابة، عليهم الذهاب إلى طبيب العيون لفحص حدة النظر.
التوتر من أسباب الصداع، لذلك يجب تعلم تقنيات وتدريبات تساعد على الاسترخاء.
شرب الماء من أهم عوامل تفادي الإصابة بالصداع، لذلك يُنصح بشرب ما لا يقل عن لترين إلى ثلاثة لترات من الماء يومياً.
ممارسة الرياضة في الهواء الطلق تزود الجسم بكمية كبيرة من الأكسجين. وينصح بممارسة الرياضة 30 دقيقة في الأسبوع على الأقل للحد من الإصابة بالصداع.
وأخيراً، إذا لم تنجح هذه الطرق في القضاء على الصداع، فيجب الذهاب إلى الطبيب لفحص السبب الكامن وراءه وعلاجه.
المصدر : دويتشه فيلله

12 March, 2015

Avian Influenza



Key facts

  • Avian influenza (AI), commonly called bird flu, is an infectious viral disease of birds.
  • Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as A(H5N1) and A(H7N9), have caused serious infections in people.
  • Outbreaks of AI in poultry may raise global public health concerns due to their effect on poultry populations, their potential to cause serious disease in people, and their pandemic potential.
  • Reports of highly pathogenic AI epidemics in poultry, such as A(H5N1), can seriously impact local and global economies and international trade.
  • The majority of human cases of A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) infection have been associated with direct or indirect contact with infected live or dead poultry. There is no evidence that the disease can be spread to people through properly cooked food.
  • Controlling the disease in animals is the first step in decreasing risks to humans.

Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious viral disease of birds (especially wild water fowl such as ducks and geese), often causing no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause large-scale outbreaks of serious disease. Some of these AI viruses have also been reported to cross the species barrier and cause disease or subclinical infections in humans and other mammals.
AI viruses are divided into 2 groups based on their ability to cause disease in poultry: high pathogenicity or low pathogenicity. Highly pathogenic viruses result in high death rates (up to 100% mortality within 48 hours) in some poultry species. Low pathogenicity viruses also cause outbreaks in poultry but are not generally associated with severe disease.

Avian influenza A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) background

The A(H5N1) virus subtype, a highly pathogenic AI virus, first infected humans in 1997 during a poultry outbreak in Hong Kong SAR, China. Since its widespread re-emergence in 2003 and 2004, this avian virus has spread from Asia to Europe and Africa and has become entrenched in poultry in some countries, resulting in millions of poultry infections, several hundred human cases, and many human deaths. Outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries.
The A(H7N9) virus subtype, a low pathogenic AI virus, first infected 3 humans – 2 residents of the city of Shanghai and 1 resident of Anhui province - in March 2013. No cases of A(H7N9) outside of China have been reported. Containment measures, including the closure of live bird markets for several months, have impacted the agriculture sectors of affected countries and international trade. Continued surveillance for A(H7N9) will be necessary to detect and control the spread of the virus.
Ongoing circulation of A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) viruses in poultry, especially where endemic, continues to pose threats to public health, as these viruses have both the potential to cause serious disease in people and may have the potential to change into a form that is more transmissible among humans. Other influenza virus subtypes also circulate in poultry and other animals, and may also pose potential threats to public health.

Avian influenza A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) infections and clinical features in humans

The case fatality rate for A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) virus infections in people is much higher compared to that of seasonal influenza infections. The A(H7N9) virus particularly affects people with underlying medical conditions.

Clinical features

In many patients, the disease caused by the A(H5N1) virus follows an unusually aggressive clinical course, with rapid deterioration and high fatality. Like most emerging disease, A(H5N1) influenza in humans is not well understood.
The incubation period for A(H5N1) avian influenza may be longer than that for normal seasonal influenza, which is around 2 to 3 days. Current data for A(H5N1) infection indicate an incubation period ranging from 2 to 8 days and possibly as long as 17 days. Current data for A(H7N9) infection indicate an incubation period ranging from 2 to 8 days, with an average of five days.1 WHO currently recommends that an incubation period of 7 days be used for field investigations and the monitoring of patient contacts.
Initial symptoms include high fever, usually with a temperature higher than 38°C, and other influenza-like symptoms (cough or sore throat). Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, chest pain, and bleeding from the nose and gums have also been reported as early symptoms in some patients.
One feature seen in many patients is the development of lower respiratory tract early in the illness. Respiratory distress, a hoarse voice, and a crackling sound when inhaling are commonly seen. Sputum production is variable and sometimes bloody.2Complications of A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) infection include hypoxemia, multiple organ dysfunction, and secondary bacterial and fungal infections.3

Antiviral treatment

Evidence suggests that some antiviral drugs, notably oseltamivir, can reduce the duration of viral replication and improve prospects of survival.
In suspected cases, oseltamivir should be prescribed as soon as possible (ideally, within 48 hours following symptom onset) to maximize its therapeutic benefits. However, given the significant mortality currently associated with A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) infection and evidence of prolonged viral replication in this disease, administration of the drug should also be considered in patients presenting later in the course of illness. The use of corticosteroids is not recommended.
In cases of severe infection with the A(H5N1) or A(H7N9) virus, clinicians may need to consider increasing the recommended daily dose or/and the duration of treatment.
In severely ill A(H5N1) or A(H7N9) patients or in patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms, drug absorption may be impaired. This possibility should be considered when managing these patients.4 Moreover, most A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) viruses are predicated to be resistant to adamantine antiviral drugs, which are therefore not recommended for use.

Risk factors for human infection

The primary risk factor for human infection appears to be direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments, such as live bird markets. Controlling circulation of the A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) viruses in poultry is essential to reducing the risk of human infection. Given the persistence of the A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) viruses in some poultry populations, control will require long-term commitments from countries and strong coordination between animal and public health authorities.
There is no evidence to suggest that the A(H5N1)and A(H7N9) viruses can be transmitted to humans through properly prepared poultry or eggs. A few A(H5N1) human cases have been linked to consumption of dishes made of raw, contaminated poultry blood. However, slaughter, defeathering, handling carcasses of infected poultry, and preparing poultry for consumption, especially in household settings, are likely to be risk factors.

Human pandemic potential

Influenza pandemics (outbreaks that affect a large proportion of the world due to a novel virus) are unpredictable but recurring events that can have health, economic and social consequences worldwide. An influenza pandemic occurs when key factors converge: an influenza virus emerges with the ability to cause sustained human-to-human transmission, and the human population has little to no immunity against the virus. With the growth of global trade and travel, a localized epidemic can transform into a pandemic rapidly, with little time to prepare a public health response.
The A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) AI viruses remain two of the influenza viruses with pandemic potential, because they continue to circulate widely in some poultry populations, most humans likely have no immunity to them, and they can cause severe disease and death in humans.
However, whether the influenza A(H7N9) virus could actually cause a pandemic is unknown. Experience has shown that some animal influenza viruses that have been found to occasionally infect people have not gone on to cause a pandemic while others have done so. Surveillance and the investigations now underway will provide some of the information needed to make this determination.
In addition to A(H5N1) and A(H7N9), other animal influenza virus subtypes reported to have infected people include avian H9, and swine H1 and H3 viruses. H2 viruses may also pose a pandemic threat. Therefore, pandemic planning should consider risks of emergence of a variety of influenza subtypes from a variety of sources.

WHO response

WHO, in its capacity for providing leadership on global health matters, is monitoring avian influenza very closely, developing and adjusting appropriate interventions in collaboration with its partners. Such partners include animal health agencies and national veterinary authorities responsible for the control and prevention of animal diseases, including influenza.
Specifically, WHO, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) collaborate through a variety of mechanisms to track and assess the risk from animal influenza viruses of public health concern, and to address these risks at the human animal interface wherever in the world they might occur. In short, WHO is monitoring the situation as it evolves, and as more information becomes available, will revise its guidance and actions accordingly.
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/avian_influenza/en/