23 January, 2016

فيروس زيكا


فيروس "زيكا" يتنقل عن طريق البعوض.

ولكن اليوم، تربطه البرازيل بزيادة كبيرة في العيوب الخلقية عند الولادة.

وينتقل فيروس "زيكا" من خلال فصيلة من البعوض تعرف علميا بـ" البعوضة الزاعجة المصرية" التي تنقل أيضا حمى "الدانغ" والحمى الصفراء. ولكن منذ أن ظهر الفيروس لأول مرة هنا في البرازيل، لم يسبب أي هلع أو ناقوس خطر بسبب أعراضه الخفيفة نسبيا، كالحمى المنخفضة وبعض الطفح الجلدي والصداع.

ولكن سرعان ما بدأ الأطباء بملاحظة وجود ارتفاع كبير في عدد حالات "الصَعَل" أو microcephaly  في الأطفال الحديثي الولادة. والصعل هو اضطراب عصبي يؤثر على حجم الجماجم ويحد من نمو الدماغ مما يضع حياة الأطفال في حاجة دائمة إلى الرعاية المستمرة.

وبينما كان الأطباء يدرسون هذا العيب الخلقي الكبير، وجدوا أن معظم الأمهات عانين أثناء فترة حملهن الأولى من أعراض تشبه أعراض فيروس الزيكا. ثم في 28 نوفمبر/تشرين الثاني، أعلنت وزارة الصحة البرازيلية عن وجود صلة بين فيروس زيكا والصَعَل.

الآن، ينصح المسؤولون البرازيليون، النساء بتأخير حملهن إذا كان ذلك ممكنا، مركزين على النساء في شمال شرق البلاد حيث ينتشر الصعل أكثر، مما دفع ست ولايات إلى الإعلان عن حالة طوارئ.

ويعتقد الأطباء أنه من الصعب جدا تحديد مدى انتشار أو كشف الفيروس لأن الكثير من الناس لا يعانون من أية أعراض، وبالتالي فإن وزارة الصحة في البرازيل تقدر أن حوالي 1.5 مليون شخص قد أصيبوا بفيروس زيكا هذا العام.
 http://arabic.cnn.com/scitech/2016/01/02/sc-020116-zika-virus



Symptoms
About 1 in 5 people infected with Zika virus become ill (i.e., develop Zika).
The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache.
The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week.
Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon.
Deaths are rare.
Diagnosis
The symptoms of Zika are similar to those of dengue and chikungunya, which are diseases caused by other viruses spread by the same type of mosquitoes.
See your healthcare provider if you develop the symptoms described above and have visited an area where Zika is present.
If you have recently traveled, tell your healthcare provider when and where you traveled.
Your healthcare provider may order blood tests to look for Zika or other similar viruses like dengue or chikungunya.
Treatment
No vaccine or medications are available to prevent or treat Zika infections.
Treat the symptoms:
Get plenty of rest
Drink fluids to prevent dehydration
Take medicines, such as acetaminophen or paracetamol, to relieve fever and pain
Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like ibuprofen and naproxen, should be avoided until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of hemorrhage. If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.
If you have Zika, avoid mosquito bites for the first week of your illness.
During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to another mosquito through mosquito bites.
An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people.

20 January, 2016

الاستخدام غير الملائم



نيويورك - أ ش أ

طالب عدد من الأطباء بضرورة تقليل وصف المضادات الحيوية لعلاج نزلات البرد، فى محاولة للحد من الاستخدام غير الملائم للمضادات الحيوية، خاصة فيما يتعلق بالتهابات وإصابات الجهاز التنفسى الحادة لدى البالغين.

ويلاحظ الأطباء أن نزلات البرد والتهاب الشعب الهوائية غير المعقد، والتهاب الحلق والجيوب الأنفية، تعد من الأسباب الأكثر شيوعا للمرضى المستخدمين للمضادات الحيوية بين البالغين فى الولايات المتحدة.
ونتيجة لذلك، نلاحظ أن الاستخدام غير الملائم للمضادات الحيوية يساهم إلى حد كبير فى انتشار العدوى المقاومة للمضادات الحيوية، وظهور ما يسمى بالجراثيم.

يذكر أن هناك مليونى شخص على الأقل يصابون بعدوى فى الولايات المتحدة سنويا، وعلى الأقل 23,000 يموتون نتيجة للبكتيريا المقاومة للمضادات الحيوية .
http://goo.gl/wn9DfN

17 January, 2016

Quit Smoking





Program to Quit Smoking.
Designed by Matthew Japheth
















 Cigarette smoking happens to be a major humanitarian challenge in terms of both the health-related problems it presents and also the financial drain it exposes smokers too. Additionally, this issue does not only affect the smoker, but also those individuals who may be exposed to inhale secondary smoke. Fortunately, there is now an excellent technique that can effectively influence smokers to change their lifestyles for the better, and in the long run, completely give up smoking. This program, which has been dubbed the takeoff, is highly noted for been progressive in nature. What this really means is it has been proven to go a long way in allowing smokers to gradually, but surely get rid of this troublesome habit. Well, without further ado let us now get directly into just what this program entails. 

To begin with, it is important to state that the takeoff is not simple to adopt, most especially when it comes to chronic smokers, who are liable to develop withdrawal symptoms. Which can be an extremely difficult experience, both for the physical and mental well-being of the smoker who seriously wishes to quit smoking. However, the takeoff’s progressive aspect, of course, takes into account all this and can enable individuals that smoke heavily to make drastic changes to their lifestyle. On an average basis, many smokers are bound to experience issues such as mood swings, decreased morale along with tensions and nervous system upheaval.

As such, the takeoff has been designed to render the necessary assistance to those persons who may not possess the resolute will power and determination to quit smoking immediately. This program is highly acclaimed for its unparalleled flexibility, which permits participants to readjust their smoking habits. Which in its turn, can allow such individuals to be seamlessly conforming to the acceptable social norms that govern the society in general. This plan has been specifically formulated for those people who smoke the upwards of one pack of cigarettes per day. As well as those who average one pack of cigarettes while out in the public. 

The takeoff, in essence, encourages the participants to form a resolution of smoking no more than a single pack of cigarettes for each day for a time period of not less than a fortnight. This obligation is all about not surpassing a transmission rate of the said one pack, or if for one reason or the other this isn’t possible, at least one and a half packs. The participant is advised to keep up this transmission rate for 2 days back to back, for the entire 2 weeks period. After the passage of one month and a half (typically six weeks), the smoker will be in a position of maintaining a cigarette consumption of 3 weekly bins, without in any way exceeding this allotment. Consequently, he or she will be able to smoke not more than 2 packs of cigarettes at the culmination of the 2nd month. This new transmission rate will permit smokers to settle for two weekly packs for the duration of one more month.

By the time the fourth month approaches, the new rate will be a pack and a half each week. In the fifth month, the smoker will find himself or herself consuming only a single pack each week, which equates to not more than 20 cigarettes at a rate of 3 cigarettes only daily basis. When the sixth month comes by, the smoker will devote himself or herself to consume not more than two cigarettes on a daily basis. It is critical to point out that this given month is noted for been the most important phase of this gradual cigarette smoking reduction program as it enables the participants to reach a plateau in their smoking habits. 

Once the seventh month comes by, the smoker will engage in an advantageous initiative to be free and unshackled with the growing urge to smoke. He or she will only limit themselves to consuming only a single cigarette for each day. They will also be required to keep up a 2 cigarette smoking day schedule. This schedule can fall on, say, Saturday and Monday or alternatively even on Wednesday. He or she is also motivated to implement a single cigarette smoking schedule on either Sunday, Tuesday or even Thursday, in accordance to their personal inclinations. Bearing this in mind, the main objective of the takeoff cigarette quitting program is to give participating smokers to totally resist the craving to smoke as they approach the eighth month. As soon as the ninth months comes around, the transmission rate will now fall at only a single cigarette for each day. To this very end, the smoker is encouraged to incorporate intermittent days when he or she does not smoke for the whole day.

 As the tenth month finally approaches, the takeoff plan admonishes smokers not to smoke publicly, for a period of not less than four full days for every week. As for the eleventh month, participating smokers are motivated to make a smoking schedule of one cigarette for two consecutive days. This schedule can fall on particular days such as Saturday, Tuesday, Sunday or perhaps even on Wednesday, Monday and Thursday in strict accordance with the smokers personal preferences.

At this juncture, it is pertinent to note that the fourth week of the 2nd month, the smoker is encouraged to make the commitment of not surpassing the schedule of smoking the specific given allotted number of cigarettes for each week. He or she is also motivated, through this gradual cigarette smoking reduction program, to harness the self-control that is necessary for the entire 3 last weeks of the twelfth month. 

This given phase of the takeoff program has been specifically developed to enable the smoker to fully access the prerequisite freedom and liberty of been in an excellent position of disdaining cigarette smoking. While at the same time, developing the mental strength and power to totally resist this craving for smoking. When this state of affairs is finally realized, a turnaround will be conveniently effected, which will entail the cropping up of a deep sense of disgust to the idea of smoking. This, in its turn, will allow those individuals who are serious about quitting to smoke to be in a position of breaking free from this form of slavery.


09 January, 2016

أفيال تنقل الدرن



أعلنت المراكز الأمريكية لمكافحة الأمراض والوقاية، اليوم السبت، أن هناك عدد من الأفيال تسبب في إصابة عاملين بحديقة الحيوان في ولاية أوريجون بمرض الدرن.

وقالت المراكز الأمريكية - في تقرير نشر اليوم ونقلته قناة سكاي نيوز الإخبارية - إن هناك 7 عاملين بحديقة الحيوان في ولاية أوريجون الأمريكية أصيبوا بمرض الدرن، من 3 أفيال يتولون رعايتها منذ عام 2013.

وأضاف التقرير أن "هؤلاء العاملين بحديقة حيوان أوريجون أصيبوا بنمط كامن من المرض الذي يصيب الجهاز التنفسي، وبالتالي لم تظهر عليهم أعراض ولم يكونوا ناقلين للعدوى".

وطالب التقرير بتحسين الفحص لرصد المرض نظرًا لأن الطريقة الحالية ربما لا تؤدي إلى رصد بعض الحالات أو قد تعطي نتائج زائفة.

ويأتي هذا التقرير عقب يومين من إصدار قاضي أمريكي أمرًا للمراكز الأمريكية بنشر وثائق بشأن الدرن لدى الأفيال إلى جماعة "أناس من أجل المعاملة الأخلاقية للحيوانات" المعنية بحقوق الحيوان .

https://www.elfagr.org/1989006#

08 January, 2016